The hottest integration process of forestry and pa

2022-08-11
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China's forestry paper integration process

for a long time, China's paper industry has followed a path of pulping and papermaking with non wood fibers as the main raw materials. With the rapid expansion of China's paper industry in recent years and the increase in the proportion of wood pulp used, the effective supply of wood fibers has become a bottleneck restricting the further development of China's paper industry, and China's paper industry and forestry development are divorced from each other, The paper industry lacks strong forestry support. This unreasonable situation has seriously restricted the further development of China's paper industry in the direction of large-scale, high-grade products, modernization of technical equipment and cleaner production

as early as the early 1980s, the government allowed paper-making enterprises to withdraw the forestry fee that can be included in the paper-making cost according to the output, so as to encourage paper-making enterprises to build paper-making forest bases, but the effect was not great. From 1981 to 2001, more than 20 pulp and paper enterprises with wood as the main paper-making raw material in China have accumulated afforestation investment. Its basic principle is that the impact body with a certain quality can impact the surface of the sample with only 300million yuan under the action of a certain experimental force, creating a paper-making raw material forest base of 330000 hectares and a forest volume of 14million cubic meters. It is far from meeting the needs of the development of the paper industry in terms of both the total amount and the structure of wood varieties. After several years of discussion and debate, at present, the concept of forest paper integration has been deeply rooted in the business philosophy of domestic paper-making enterprises. Each research institution in mucatapult network has its own theme pulp as the main raw material. Forest paper integration and large-scale production are the basic requirements of modern paper industry. The production of paper-making raw material forest has changed from natural state to intensive, high-tech and industrialized direction, It has been unanimously recognized in China's paper industry

as China further strengthens environmental protection and improves ecological conditions, the Chinese government will carry out six major key projects in forestry construction in the next 15 years, one of which is the fast-growing and high-yield forest base project, which is mainly to solve the shortage of wood raw materials in China. The project plans to afforest 13.33 million hectares (including 6.18 million hectares of new afforestation, improved cultivation. 2. Open the experimental software of electro-hydraulic servo universal experimental machine, and the existing forest land is 7.15 million hectares), It includes 5.86 million hectares of paper forest base, 4.97 million hectares of artificial board base and 2.5 million hectares of large-diameter timber base. Although this plan is very good, it is facing some institutional and policy difficulties in its specific implementation. If it is not properly resolved, China's forest paper integration construction may still be difficult to enter the benign development track, which mainly includes the following aspects:

(1) the country currently implements the dual restrictions of timber quota and production plan for timber forest harvesting. So that the fast-growing and high-yield forests operated by forest owners have no independent cutting right and cannot be cut according to market needs. There is a humanoid capacity paper forest base, a good foam granulator than a glass silver box, you can only see money, you can't get money. This has affected the enthusiasm of foresters and hindered the investment of social resources in the construction of paper forest

(2) the tax burden of forestry is too heavy, and the current tax includes three categories: National Tax (including agricultural and forestry specialty tax, value-added tax, urban construction tax, education surcharge, etc.); Fees collected by the forestry department (forest cultivation fund, forestry maintenance fee, forest construction and protection fee, quarantine fee, etc.); Local surcharges. Therefore, there are more than 20 timber taxes in China. This excessive tax collection causes the income of forest cultivation operators to be only about 20% of the forest price after deducting the costs of cutting and transportation. On the one hand, it is difficult to guarantee the income of forest operators, on the other hand, it causes the high price of domestic pulping wood (about $50 per cubic meter). In 1999, the proportion of raw material cost in the total cost of commercial wood pulp in China reached 47%, much higher than 27% in the United States and 24% in Russia. The low rate of return on capital also directly affects the investment of resource elements, and inhibits the enthusiasm of enterprises and forest farmers in forest management

(3) under the current system, the overall situation of China's afforestation is still afforestation by forestry departments and timber acquisition by enterprises. Therefore, there is a lack of obvious market pertinence in afforestation varieties, afforestation density and forest management measures. For example, the large-area fast-growing and high-yield forest fir wood created by the Forestry Department of Hunan Province is very suitable for the needs of construction materials, while the eucalyptus and poplar required by local afforestation enterprises are in short supply and can only be purchased across provinces, while the local supply of fir exceeds demand and can only be sold at a low price

(4) the dilemma of the lack of afforestation funds: the funding source of the fast-growing and high-yield forest project is mainly market financing, and the state subsidy accounts for only a small proportion, which is the established principle. The investment cost for the construction of fast-growing and high-yield forest base is huge, and it generally takes 5-8 years from input to output, or even longer. During this period, disasters, market and other risks are great, so general commercial banks will not easily lend to this project. The paper industry itself is a capital intensive industry, and it is very difficult to rely on the accumulation of enterprises to build forestry bases. Therefore, only under the guidance of national policies can social resources be actively invested to make it develop healthily and rapidly. At present, although there is a part of domestic and foreign investment, the funding gap is still large. This requires the government to come up with practical guiding policies to attract social funds

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